The 1960s is the time of superpower confrontations and political assassinations, of waging an unpopular war, of campus conflicts and racial tensions. American writers react to these developments. They denounce the government and the military, criticize the country's moral and cultural decadence, blame the media (especially television), for deceiving and numbing their audience. Tradition, history and culture in general are described as fictive, fraudulently shaped by debased language and self-serving, often discredited ideology. Consequently, radical experimentation occurs within the medium of fiction itself. The novel's conventional meaning and form are renounced as irrelevant, exhausted or dead. Writers attempt to renew the novel partly by parody and pastiche, by employing radical irony, self-consciousness and reflexivity, by blending high art and popular culture. Their major subject is now often the act of creation itself as well as the application of it to the redefining of traditional perception, history or morality.